Heat would best be transferred by conduction between A) a candle and the air.
B) an oven and a glass dish.
C) a stove and a copper pot.
D) water and a wooden spoon.


Answer 1
Answer: C a stove and copper pot

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Which statement identifies a difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond? A. an ionic bond is a bond between charged atoms, while a covalent bond is a bond between neutral atoms
b. an covalent bond as a bond between charge atoms, while an ionic bond is a bond between neutral atoms
c. an ionic bond shares electrons, while a covalent bond is an attraction between opposite charges
d. an ionic bond is a bond between charged atoms, while a covalent bond is a bond between opposite charges


Ionic bonds result when electrons are tranfered between atoms. Covalent bondsresult when valence electrons are shared between atoms. You should be able to identify whether an ionic or covalent bond is being formed between atoms.

Which of the following uses a protein to move a molecule across a cell membrane without energy


Facilitated diffusion

I believe it would be option A. If it still doesn't answer your question, don't hesitate comment below. :)


individuals with a sex linked condition called red green color blindness do not see the colors of red and green. red green blindness is caused by the recessive allele b and is carried on the x chromosomes. the dominant allele for normal color vision os B. when the X chromosome contains the dominant allele, the allele is written as XB, when the X chromes contains the recessive allele, the allele is written as Xb. A man who is color blind marries a women who is not color blind and is not a carrier of the allele for color blindness. Create a punnet square to predict the possible genotypes of their children. how many children will be color blind? will al the frmale children be carriers or will none be carriers



None of the children will be colorblind. All of the female children will be carriers.


Given, colorblindness is a X linked recessive trait

XB = dominant allele

Xb = recessive allele

father: color blind: XbY

mother: normal : XBXB

Their children:  Xb           Y

            XB      XBXb    XBY  

            XB      XBXb    XBY

None of the children will be color blind.  All of the female children will be carriers ( XBXb )

Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual. In autosomal chromosomes both sexes have the same probability of existing (see Fisher's principle), but since humans have many more genes on the female X chromosome than on the male Y chromosome, these are much more common than Y-linked traits.

In mammals, the female is homogametic, with two X chromosomes (XX), while the male is the heterogametic sex, with one X and one Y chromosome (XY). Genes on the X or Y chromosome are called sex-linked. In ZW sex-determination system used by birds the opposite is true: the male is the homogametic sex (ZZ), and the female is heterogametic (ZW).

X-linked recessive traits are expressed in all heterogametics, but are only expressed in those homogametics that are homozygous for the recessive allele. For example, an X-linked recessive allele in humans causes haemophilia, which is much more common in males than females because they are hemizygous (see zygosity) and therefore express the trait when they inherit one mutant allele. In contrast, a female must inherit two mutant alleles, a less frequent event since the mutant allele is rare in the population.

The incidence of recessive X-linked phenotypes in females is the square of that in males (squaring a proportion less than one gives an outcome closer to 0 than the original). If 1 in 20 males in a human population are red-green color blind, then 1 in 400 females in the population are expected to be color-blind (1/20)*(1/20). (The term 'color-blind' is not completely accurate. There are degrees of weakness in color vision and it is now called 'color vision deficiency'.)

X-linked traits are maternally inherited from carrier mothers or from an affected father. Each son born to a carrier mother has a 50% probability of inheriting the X-chromosome carrying the mutant allele. There are a few Y-linked traits; these are inherited from father.

In classical genetics, a reciprocal cross is performed to test if a trait is sex-linked. 

Each child of a mother affected with an X-linked dominant trait has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutation and thus being affected with the disorder. If only the father is affected, 100% of the daughters will be affected, since they inherit their father's X-chromosome, and 0% of the sons will be affected, since they inherit their father's Y-chromosome.

Females possessing one X-linked recessive mutation are considered carriers and will generally not manifest clinical symptoms of the disorder. All males possessing an X-linked recessive mutation will be affected, since males have only a single X-chromosome and therefore have only one copy of X-linked genes. All offspring of a carrier female have a 25% chance of inheriting the mutation if the father does not carry the recessive allele. All female children of an affected father will be carriers (assuming the mother is not affected or a carrier), as daughters possess their father's X-chromosome. If the mother is not a carrier, no male children of an affected father will be affected, as males only inherit their father's Y-chromosome.

(Hope I helped :C


Which of the following makes up the dense outer layer of bone? a. compact bone
b. spongy bone
c. bone marrow
d. periosteum


The answer to the question is

A. compact bone

Compact bone is dense and hard, which makes it strong. Spongy bone, further inside, has many gaps and is lightweight. This allows bone to be strong and light at the same time.
The answer to your question is the compact bone .

Which observation proves that a cell is a eukaroyotic ?



a eukariote is a cell that has a membrane bound nucleus



Which type of epithelium is present where easy exchange of materials out of the blood is most important, such as that in the lining of the heart and all blood vessels?


The correct answer is endothelium.

The endothelium is a thin layer of single-layered, squamous cells that can be found in the lumen of blood vessels, on the interior surfaces of the heart chambers, in the glomerulus of the kidney...The main function of endothelium is barrier function when it acts as a semi-selective barrier between the lumen of the vessels and surrounding tissue, and thus, controls the passage of materials. The endothelium is also included in functions such as fluid filtration in the kidneys, the control of blood pressure (vasodilatation and vasoconstriction), inflammation.




-Endothelial cells (Endothelium) are often considered specialized epithelial cells which line blood vessels.

-Endothelium are the cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. It is a thin layer of simple, or single-layered, squamous cells called endothelial cells.

-Endothelial cells release substances that control vascular relaxation and contraction as well as enzymes that control blood clotting, immune function and platelet (a colorless substance in the blood) adhesion.


Ribosomal proteins are the same in all cell types.
a. True
b. False



b. False


"Ribosomes are highly conserved molecular machines whose core composition has traditionally been regarded as invariant. However, recent studies have reported intriguing differences in the expression of some ribosomal proteins (RPs) across tissues and highly specific effects on the translation of individual mRNAs.

[...] an unanticipated plasticity of RP expression across normal and malignant human cell types and provides a foundation for future characterization of cellular behaviors that are orchestrated by specific RPs"

Reference: Guimaraes, Joao C, and Mihaela Zavolan. “Patterns of Ribosomal Protein Expression Specify Normal and Malignant Human Cells.” Genome Biology, BioMed Central, 24 Nov. 2016


The best answer to the question: Ribosomal proteins are the same in all cell types, would be:  True.


Ribosomes are cell components that are built from proteins and RNA. Their task is to assemble on an mRNA strand and from the code embedded in that strand, code for aminoacids that are carried in the ribosome itself. The one who establishes what type of protein will be produced in the ribosome is the mRNA code, and a series of control processes.

Essentially, both prokaryotic cells and eukariotic cells (like ours) have ribosomes because these elemental organelles in the cell are the ones responsible for assembling proteins, which in the end are the molecules that ensure organisms are able to function. Because their basic function is to code for aminoacids that will build polypeptide chains, and the process for protein formation is basically standardized in both types of cells, the structure of ribosomes does not change depending on the cell where they are found.

In eukaryotes, for example, it has been established that all ribosomes are essentially formed of two subunits, an upper one made of 60 subunits and an bottom one with a smaller chain called a 40-s or 40 subunits. In Prokaryotes the number of subunits on both the top and bottom are a bit smaller than in eukaryotes but for all intents and purposes the differences are very small.


According to thelen (1986), which reflex may contribute to the birthing process? the stepping reflex the rooting reflex the grasping reflex. the startle reflex.


According to Thelen {1986}, THE STEPPING REFLEX may contribute to the birthing process.
Stepping reflex is one of the reflexes demonstrate by new born babies. When resistance is exerted on the feet of a new born baby, the baby will respond by placing one foot in front of the other, this is called stepping reflex and Thelen suggested that this reflex may help in the birthing process.

What is the primary function of the calvin cycle? what is the primary function of the calvin cycle? to use nadph to release carbon dioxide to convert starch to sugars to extract electrons from water and release oxygen to synthesize a simple sugar (g3p) from carbon dioxide to use atp and nadph to convert a simple sugar (g3p) to carbon dioxide?


Correct answer:
"to synthesize a simple sugar (g3p) from carbon dioxide"

The main purpose of the Calvin cycle is two synthesize simple sugars from carbon dioxide. Per cycle, 6 G3P are created. Five of those continue the cycle again while one is used to the synthesizing of glucose, which will be the plant's energy source for many other reactions. The process of adding more carbon atoms from carbon dioxide to the existant carbons of the cycle is called Carbon fixation.
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