What is hate speech and how can it potentially lead to genocide?


Answer 1

While hate speech can often be dismissed as bigoted ranting or merely painful words, it could also serve as an important warning sign for a much more severe consequence: genocide. Increasingly virulent hate speech is often a precursor to mass violence. World Policy Institute fellow Susan Benesch, along with Dr. Francis Deng, the United Nations Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide (OSAPG), is attempting to find methods for preventing or limiting such violence,  by examining the effects of speech upon a population. Initiated in February 2010, Benesch’s project,  is funded by the MacArthur Foundation, the US Institute of Peace and the Fetzer Institute. It was inspired by the high levels of inflammatory speech preceding Rwandan genocide and the Bosnian war of the  mid-1990s. Since then, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda  has recognized the relationship between hate speech and genocide by trying the world’s first “incitement to genocide” cases, convicting radio broadcasters, a newspaper editor, and even a pop star for the crime. Following suit, the International Criminal Court has indicted a Kenyan radio host for broadcasts preceding the post-election violence of 2007-2008 in Kenya

In 1995 the ICC convicted Jean-Paul Akayesu, a former Rwandan bourgmestre—or mayor—for incitement to genocide after he  gave a speech that was immediately followed by massacres. Benesch noted, however, that Akayesu’s words did not catalyze genocide in the country, since mass killings had already begun elsewhere in Rwanda by the time he spoke.  

On October 28, 2010Benesch joined Deng at the United Nations for a panel discussion on their project and genocide prevention. Populations do not rise up  overnight to commit spontaneous, collective acts of genocide. Deng said. They “undergo collective social processes fueled by inflammatory speech.”  

There is an important distinction between limiting speech and limiting its dangerousness, Benesch said. It is vital to examine the context in which speech is made in order to properly determine the motivation behind it – and the effect it is likely to have. The dangerousness of speech cannot be estimated outside the  context in which it was made or disseminated, and its original message can become lost in translation.

Within context, speech can take on new meaning. “Are there particular aspects of the context that make a particular speech act more dangerous?” Benesch asked her audience on Thursday. “In other words, [are there factors] more likely to catalyze a particular form of incitement, like incitement to genocide, than other factors?”

Speech can also become less harmful if its sources are not credible, discredited or unseen by the population.

“The law has not yet distinguished fully between incitement to genocide on the one hand, and on the other hand the much broader and variously defined category of hate speech,” Benesch said. She is working on developing a coherent definition so as to distinguish incitement to genocide from hate speech, a difficult task as a “particularly heinous crime is pressed up, conceptually speaking, against a particular cherished and fundamental right, which is the right of freedom of expression.” The challenge lies in walking the fine line between monitoring and recognizing incitement to genocide and avoiding measures that may lead to over-restricted speech.

It is possible to limit the dissemination of speech if not the speech itself, which is a possibility that may be conducive to the goal of not infringing upon freedom of speech and expression. In striving to identify what it is exactly that makes a particular speech act “hate speech” on the one hand or dangerous “incitement to genocide” on the other, Benesch presented her theory: that hate speech can be performed successfully by anyone, but not everyone can successfully use speech to incite genocide. The power and influence of the figure  addressing the speech to a particular audience, along with the contextual factors of that speaker and that audience (i.e. creating false scenarios of self-defense, in which the targeted group are accused of undue murderous acts), are substantial factors in distinguishing hate speech from incitement to genocide. The proposed policy responses include: logistical efforts to hinder inflammatory broadcasts (such as jamming radio waves), prosecution and arrests, and education. Getting the public involved and aware of the poisonous nature of inflammatory speech and how it can manipulate the masses is a key strategy in combating mass violence.

Answer 2


Hate speech is public speech that expresses hate or encourages violence towards a person or group based on something such as race, religion, sex, or sexual orientation.  

Genocide is the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation.

Related Questions


Write a speech You will turn in your outline and speech.

Written a speech that will be 2-3 minutes long.

Used at least three rhetorical devices, one of which must be parallel sentences.

Used an appropriate voice tone.

Included a works cited page.

Please help!!!!


Have you wrote one yet?


try finding a topic and i recommend using grammarly for the speech



PLZ ANSWER ASAP Percy Jackson The Lightning Thief
can anyone tell me what chapter it was when Percy found out that his mother was alive?


Chapter 22 according to Google

In ch 16 when Ares gives him the news:)

if it’s correct please give me brain thing


Why does Jerry sell his Grover Cleveland card? A. He already has two other Grover Cleveland cards thanks to Rollie Tremaine. B. He realizes that he needs an Abraham Lincoln card more than a Grover Cleveland card. C. He is still foolish and immature when it comes to making decisions. D. He knows that helping his brother is more important than collecting cards.


Jerry sells his Grover Cleveland card because he knows that helping his brother is more important than collecting cards. The correct answer is D.

What does the reader learn about Jem, Scout, and Boo in these chapters? (chapters 6&7) Use the strongest evidence from the novel in your answer.


Is this To Kill a Mockingbird?

Ok this is the summary  of what i remember in chapter 6 and 7

Well on chapter 6 Jem and Dill obey Atticus until Dill's last day in Maycomb. Jem sneaks over to the Radley Place(where boo lives) and peeks in through a loose shutter. Mr. Radley comes out and starts firing with his shotgun. The kids were able to escape under the fence by the schoolyard. Jem's pants get caught on the fence, and he has to kick them off in order to free himself. The next day. Chapter 7, Jem goes back to get his pants and he sees his pants hung neatly over the fence. Another presents appear in the knothole and this time they were carved soaps that resembled Scout and Jem.


Two buses leave school moving in opposite directions. after 15 minutes, they are both 10 miles away from the school. which statements correctly describe the motion of the buses? the velocity of the buses is equal.

the average speed of the buses is equal.

the average speed of the buses is not equal.

the velocity of the buses is not equal.

both buses move with constant velocity the entire trip.


The statement, which correctly describes the motion of the buses is this: THE AVERAGE SPEED OF THE BUSES IS EQUAL.

Speed is defined as the distance traveled per unit time; it measures the rate of moving of an object. It is a scalar quantity, that is, it has only magnitude and no specific direction and it is measured in meter per second. A high speed value implies that an object is moving very fast while a low value indicates that the object is moving slowly. For the two buses given in the question, they both moved the same distance in the same amount of time.

The motion of the bus depends on the speed at which it travels in a time. The average speed of the buses is equal but not the velocity when traveling 10 miles in opposite direction. Thus, options B and D are correct.

What is an average speed?

An average speed is a ratio of the distance traveled by the object at a particular time. As the two buses traveled the same distance of 10 miles in opposite directions in 15 minutes their average speed is the same.

The two buses had the same distance and covered that in that particular time. The velocity of the buses is not equal to the directional speed indicated as the change in the position with respect to the time is not the same.

Therefore, the average speed is the same but the velocity differs.

Learn more about speed and velocity here:




How can we best express our feelings to another person? through language, by talking with them

through language, by writing in our diaries

by the way we walk and sit

by our facial expressions


It’s the 2nd one I’m pretty sure
By our facial expression

Why does Liza seek Higgins's help?


The answer is to learn to speak proper english hope this helps.

Need answers ASAP! Are the verbs correct in these sentences:

1. The soccer team was good and is still improving.

2. The singer is singing songs he performed last year.


the soccer team is good and is still improving.

the singer is singing songs he performed last year.

Second one is correct, first one should be IS! Have a good day!

Taken for a Ride by T. Herlinger

Laurel and her best friend, Paula, had boarded the Seattle ferry at 9:00 that morning—the first day of Spring Break—stowing their backpacks in a locker and climbing to the top of the ship. They had watched from the stern as the Space Needle and other Seattle landmarks faded away and the San Juan Islands gradually appeared. It would be another few hours before they reached Canada, which left them plenty of time to explore the boat.
In no time, Laurel befriended one of the ship's stewards, Ronald, who oriented the girls a bit, pointing out the snack bar and naming the various geographical sights they were passing. Laurel was fast developing a crush on the boy, and he was flirting right back, telling jokes and spending more time with her and Paula than with other passengers. The trip was shaping up just fine—that is, until Laurel went to buy some chips and discovered her wallet was missing!
"Paula, it's just disappeared," she desperately told her friend, "my passport, all my money, my mom's credit card, everything!"
Paula tried to remain calm and to offer some comfort. "Could you have left it in your backpack, in the locker?"
Laurel shook her head, nearly in tears now, but they raced down to the lockers anyway and emptied out the contents of both their packs—no luck. Laurel started pacing the floor, in a panic. There was no way Customs in Canada would ever let her in without any identification, which meant her vacation was ruined.
Just then, Ronald appeared out of nowhere—a welcome sight to the distraught girls. Paula related the predicament they were in, and Ronald offered to announce the lost wallet on the PA system, but Laurel begged him not to. She felt humiliated enough as it was without the whole ship knowing about it.
"You probably just dropped it or misplaced it," he suggested. "Let's split up and search the ship's decks. Laurel, you and I can search the upper level, and Paula, you search the lower, okay?"
Paula was amenable to the plan and quickly began scouring the area around the lockers. Laura and Ronald headed upstairs to the upper deck. Five minutes into their searching, Laurel slumped down on a bench and wept in frustration. Then, to her amazement, Ronald sat beside her and promptly produced her wallet from the inside pocket of his vest!
"Oh, thank goodness!" Laurel cried. "But where on earth did you find it?"
"I had your wallet all along," the steward confessed. "I knew you and your friend were inexperienced travelers, and I wanted to show you what an easy target you could be for pickpocketers. Always carry your wallet in an inside pocket, or deep in your backpack, okay?"
Nodding solemnly as she wiped away her tears, Laurel promised that she would. It was a tough lesson, but not one this young traveler would soon forget.
It was a tough lesson, but not one this young traveler would soon forget.

Who is being referred to in this sentence?

B.the narrator


In this passage the person being referred to is Laurel. Thus the correct option is D.

What is a Context clue?

Any kind of hint or idea reflects from the statements which help the reader to understand the clear context in which the word is used is refers context clue. This clue helps the reader to determine the appropriate meaning.

The passage clearly states that On the first day of Spring Break, at nine in the morning, Laurel and her closest friend Paula had climbed to the top of the Seattle ferry, stowed their backpacks in a locker, and boarded the vehicle.

The passage highlights Laurel and their friends and presents them as key characters throughout which central thought is revolving to provide a conclusion to the reader.

The passage ends with the thought that Laurel stated that she planned to do so. This young traveler will not soon forget the difficult lesson he had to learn. It was a hard lesson to learn, but one that this young traveler would not quickly forget.

Therefore, option D is appropriate.

Learn more about Context Clue, here:



The correct answer is D. Laurel
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